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Adjusting Structures and Procedures: Analyzing the Dynamics in Pakistan (1947-2018)


State structures are constantly adjusted for resilience in a social world full of external and internal challenges. Structural shifts or reforms are comprehensively explored in the public management literature; though little is known regarding the dynamics of reforms in a developing context like Pakistan and that too from a longitudinal perspective. This research documents the key adjustments in the state structure and analyzes the changing dynamics of reform mechanisms at the federal level of Pakistan in a period of over seven decades. Both civilian and military led governments made continuous adjustments in state structures with shifting choices in reform mechanisms. With dominance of hierarchy type mechanisms over the years, the new trends in reforms around the world including market and network type mechanisms were also brought in for a resilient system. Markets and hierarchies were mostly blended in with hierarchies to create state specific reform patterns. Developing countries pick up international trends in reforms imported from West; however, the way they are influenced by the role of contextual actors (both political and non-political).


Public governance reforms, Hierarchy, Market, Networks, State structures


Author Biography

Abiha Zahra

PhD Student